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双语+MP3|美国学生艺术史41 陶土雕刻

所属教程:希利尔:美国学生文史经典套装

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2019年01月10日

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毫无疑问,硬币的作用是购物。但有一种古老的、像硬币一样的雕刻,称作“勋章”,它尺寸更大一些,但不当钱用。勋章上的图案通常是高浮雕,是把金属倒进模子里制成,而不是用模具印出来。这些勋章通常用作体育比赛的奖励,或战争中的立功授勋,或用在大事件、周年纪念或庆典中。今天大家也制作这种勋章,所以你爸爸说不定就有一枚勋章,叫他拿出来给你看看。 
41 BAKED EARTH SCULPTURE陶土雕刻
 
TERRA COTTA means earth baked. A flower pot and a brick are terra cotta—that is, earth or clay baked till it is red, yellowish red. You have probably made things out of mud—oranges and apples, cups and saucers—and the old Greeks made figures of people in the same way and out of the same thing, mud or clay. They made little statues of women, smaller than doll babies, out of clay, and then baked them so that they would not crumble to pieces. That baking turned them into terra cotta. 
It was the custom to place these little figures or little statues— figurines and statuettes, they were called—in tombs and graves and thousands of them have been dug up and are now in museums. As they were first dug up in a town in Greece named Tanagra, all such statuettes are called Tanagra figurines. They are usually figures of ladies carrying a fan or a parasol. Yes, the Greek ladies had fans and parasols very like the ones ladies have nowadays. What is unusual in Greek sculpture is that the figures are fully clothed. 
Most of the statuettes are original, but some of them are copies of large statues. As many of the large statues have disappeared, these figurine copies show us what the originals looked like. But they show us more than that. If you want to find out what the Greeks really were like, go to a museum and look at these little figures. The big, famous marble statues are of gods and goddesses, athletes and warriors. They were more nearly perfect than real people. But these terra cotta statuettes are copied from everyday Greeks. They show us what the real Greeks were like. One shows a girl milking a cow. Another shows two girls playing a game, with one riding on the back of the other. Just everyday doings. 
 
No.41 TANAGRA FIGURINES(《塔纳格拉小雕像》) 
Courtesy of Pratt Institute 
Many of the figurines were painted in bright colors. Some had tiny necklaces of real gold or held bronze ornaments in their hands. But on many of them the only color left is the yellowish red of the clay of which they are formed. 
The figurines are hollow except for their heads, which are solid clay. I’m sure your head has more in it than solid clay, no matter how hollow the rest of you may feel just before dinner time. 
Figurines were made for the dead, lamps were made for the living. Lamps, which every house had to have, were decorated with figures in low relief. Lamps nowadays, of course, are usually electric and quite different from those in ancient Greece and other countries. These old lamps were very small, seldom larger than your hand, and were made either of terra cotta or bronze. They had a hole in which a twisted piece of stringlike cloth was stuffed for a wick. They held olive oil or grease which soaked the wick and made it burn when lighted. These lamps gave no more light than a burning match, but that was all the light people had at night. Perhaps they went to bed earlier than we do. The lamps often had on the top or sides the usual fairy-tale figures—Greek gods or goddesses or other characters in Greek mythology. 
Lamps were made in molds and hundreds or even thousands of lamps were made from one mold. Some of the old molds have been dug up out of the ground and are used to make modern reproductions which are sold to-day as souvenirs to travelers or even called antiques. If the lamps are of bronze and are really old ones that have been dug up, they have a greenish coating called a patina. If they are not really old, they are sometimes dipped in acid to make them look so, but they have sharper edges than the old and the patina made by acid does not look the same as that eaten in by time. If they are of clay, the newly made lamps look cleaner cut and fresher than the old. So if you are thinking of buying an ancient lamp to-morrow (stranger things have happened), be sure to notice the patina or the freshness of the clay. 



 
泥土经过烘焙成为陶土。花盆和砖块都是陶土产品。当泥土或粘土烘焙至红色或红黄色,就形成陶土。大家小时候都玩过泥巴,可能还捏过东西——橘子、苹果、茶杯或碟子等。古希腊人用同样的材质,即泥土或粘土,以同样的方法雕刻人像。他们用粘土制作比木偶娃娃还要小的女雕像,然后进行烘焙,以防破裂,从而形成陶土制品。 
古希腊人有种习俗,他们将这些人像或其他小雕像放进坟墓。如今,它们被挖掘出来,有成千上万件,都收藏在博物馆。由于首次发掘是在希腊一个叫塔纳格拉的城镇,所以就叫“塔纳格拉小雕像”。这些小雕像通常刻画的是手拿风扇或阳伞的女士。是的,古希腊女士们拿的风扇和阳伞和大家今天女士拿的没有什么差别。古希腊雕刻的不寻常之处在于雕像上的人物都穿戴完整。 
这些出土的小雕像大多是原作,但也有一些是巨像的摹制品。由于巨像早已消失,所以大家就从这些小型的摹制品了解原作的样子。然而,它们向大家展示的远不止这些。如果想知道古希腊人到底是什么模样,不妨就到博物馆去看看这些小雕像吧。著名的大理石雕像刻画的是希腊诸神、运动员和战士。这些人物通常刻得比真人更接近完美。而陶土小雕像刻的是日常生活中的古希腊人。它们向大家展示了现实生活中的古希腊人。有一件刻的是挤牛奶的少女。还有一件向大家展示了两个女孩玩游戏的场景,她们一人骑在另一人的背上。这都是日常生活。 
许多小雕像涂的色彩都很鲜艳。有些脖子上戴着真金的小项链,手上佩戴青铜配饰。许多雕像都褪了色,只剩下当初作材质时的红黄粘土色了。 
小雕像除了头部用实心粘土外,其他部位都是空心的。我敢肯定,无论饭前你觉得肚子有多空,但脑袋里远不只是坚硬的粘土。 
小雕像专为死者所雕,灯却是为活人而制。家家都有灯,上面都有一些浅浮雕图案。当然,现在大家通常使用电灯,这和古希腊和其他古国所使用的灯大不相同。古灯都非常小,很少有巴掌大的。它们用陶土或青铜制成。灯上有个洞,洞里塞了一片线状扭曲的布条,作灯芯,泡在橄榄油或动物脂里,点燃发光。这种灯光还不及一根点燃的火柴亮,但却是古人夜晚的唯一照明啊。也许他们上床比大家早。这种古灯通常放在希腊诸神或希腊神话中其他人物的雕像上方或身旁。 
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