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2018年10月15日

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Judicial Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Some Issues Regarding the Application of Security Law of the People's Republic of China
This Interpretation is adopted by the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court in its No.1133 Conference on September 29, 2000 and promulgated now. It will come into force as of December 13, 2000.
December 8, 2000
Judicial Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Some Issues Regarding the Application of Security Law
(Adopted by the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court in its No.1133 at Conference No. 1133 on September 29, 2000. Decree NO. 44.)
In light of ensuring the correct application of the Guaranty Law of the People's Republic of China and Considering the Judicial experiences of the People's courts, the following interpretations have been made concerning the application of law in the court's handling of disputes of guaranty. Based on the judicial experience, this Interpretation is promulgated for the people's courts to correctly apply the Security Law of the People's Republic of China(hereinafter "Security Law") in dealing with security disputes.

 

中华人民共和国最高人民法院公告

(相关资料:部门规章5篇司法说明11篇其他规范性文件3篇地方法规7篇案例24篇裁判文书1891篇相关论文74篇实务指南)
《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国担保法〉若干问题的说明》已于2000年9月29日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1133次会议通过,现予公布,自2000年12月13日起施行。
2000年12月8日
最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国担保法》若干问题的说明
(2000年9月29日最高人民法院审判委员会
第1133次会议通过 法释〔2000〕44号)
为了正确适用《中华人民共和国担保法》(以下简称担保法),结合审判实践经验,对人民法院审理担保纠纷案件适用法律问题作出如下说明。

PART ONE: INTERPRETATION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES

 

一、关于总则部分的说明

Article 1 A security created by the parties for the creditor's obligation arising from civil relations may be considered effective if it accords with the forms stipulated in the Security Law and does not violate any compulsory provisions in laws and regulations.

 

第一条当事人对由民事关系产生的债权,在不违反法律、法规强制性规定的情况下,以担保法规定的方式设定担保的,可以认定为有效。
(相关资料:裁判文书11篇实务指南)

Article 2 Counter-security provider may be the debtor or some other party.
The form of counter-security may be mortgage or pledge offered by the debtor, or guarantee, mortgage or pledge offered by some other party.

 

第二条反担保人可以是债务人,也可以是债务人之外的其他人。
反担保方式可以是债务人提供的抵押或者质押,也可以是其他人提供的保证、抵押或者质押。
(相关资料:裁判文书14篇实务指南)

Article 3 A security contract shall be invalid if state organs and institutions, social organizations for the public good violate the law by acting as security provider. The creditor's consequent loss shall be compensated pursuant to Article 5(2) of Security Law.

 

第三条国家机关和以公益为目的的事业单位、社会团体违反法律规定提供担保的,担保合同无效。因此给债权人造成损失的,应当根据担保法第五条第二款的规定处理。
(相关资料:裁判文书26篇实务指南)

Article 4 A security contract shall be invalid if the directors and managers violate Article 60 of PRC Company Law by providing security for the debt of company's shareholder or other persons. The debtor and security provider shall bear joint compensation liability for creditor's loss unless the creditor knows or should know about the fact.

 

第四条董事、经理违反《中华人民共和国企业法》第六十条的规定,以企业资产为本企业的股东或者其他个人债务提供担保的,担保合同无效。除债权人知道或者应当知道的外,债务人、担保人应当对债权人的损失承担连带赔偿责任。
(相关资料:案例2篇裁判文书65篇相关论文3篇实务指南)

Article 5 If a security is created on a property that is prohibited by laws and regulations from circulating, or not transferable, the security contract shall be invalid.
If a security is created on a property restricted by laws and regulations from circulating, the people's court shall dispose of the property to realize the creditor's right according to relevant laws and regulations.

 

第五条以法律、法规禁止流通的财产或者不可转让的财产设定担保的,担保合同无效。
以法律、法规限制流通的财产设定担保的,在实现债权时,人民法院应当按照有关法律、法规的规定对该财产进行处理。
(相关资料:裁判文书1篇实务指南)

Article 6 A foreign security contract shall be invalid if:

 

第六条有下列情形之一的,对外担保合同无效:

1. the security is not approved or registered by relevant administration authorities;

 

(一)未经国家有关主管部门批准或者登记对外担保的;

2. the security is provided to domestic creditor for overseas organs without approval or registration by relevant administration authorities;

 

(二)未经国家有关主管部门批准或者登记,为境外机构向境内债权人提供担保的;

3. the security is created to secure registered capital or the foreign party's external debt of its investment in a foreign-invested enterprise;

 

(三)为外商投资企业注册资本、外商投资企业中的外方投资部分的对外债务提供担保的;

4. a foreign exchange security is provided by a financial organ whose business scope does not include foreign exchange security, or a foreign exchange security offered by a non-financial enterprise legal person without foreign exchange income;

 

(四)无权经营外汇担保业务的金融机构、无外汇收入的非金融性质的企业法人提供外汇担保的;

5. the security provider will not assume any obligation if the principal contract is altered or the creditor transfers the right of a foreign security contract without consent of the security provider or approval of relevant administration authorities, except as otherwise provided by laws and regulations.

 

(五)主合同变更或者债权人将对外担保合同项下的权利转让,未经担保人同意和国家有关主管部门批准的,担保人不再承担担保责任。但法律、法规另有规定的除外。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇案例3篇裁判文书58篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 7 The security provider and debtor shall assume joint compensation liability for the creditor's loss on the condition that the principal contract is valid while the security contract is invalid, and the creditor is not at fault. If the creditor and security provider are both at fault, the security provider's portion of civil liability shall not exceed half of the debtor's unpayable portion.

 

第七条主合同有效而担保合同无效,债权人无过错的,担保人与债务人对主合同债权人的经济损失,承担连带赔偿责任;债权人、担保人有过错的,担保人承担民事责任的部分,不应超过债务人不能清偿部分的二分之一。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇地方法规1篇案例5篇裁判文书179篇相关论文2篇实务指南)

Article 8 The security provider shall not assume any civil obligation if the security contract is invalid due to the invalidity of the principal contract and the provider is not at fault. If the security provider is at fault, he shall bear no more than one third of the obligation that can not be fulfilled by the debtor.

 

第八条主合同无效而导致担保合同无效,担保人无过错的,担保人不承担民事责任;担保人有过错的,担保人承担民事责任的部分,不应超过债务人不能清偿部分的三分之一。
(相关资料:地方法规1篇案例3篇裁判文书124篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 9 The security provider may have recourse against the debtor after assuming compensation liability to the creditor in case of invalid security contract. The security provider may also require the counter-security provider at fault to bear the liability within the compensation scope.
The security provider may bring a lawsuit against the debtor or counter-security provider on the basis of the fact that compensation has been made fact.

 

第九条担保人因无效担保合同向债权人承担赔偿责任后,可以向债务人追偿,或者在承担赔偿责任的范围内,要求有过错的反担保人承担赔偿责任。
担保人可以根据承担赔偿责任的事实对债务人或者反担保人另行提起诉讼。
(相关资料:案例2篇裁判文书39篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 10 After termination of principal contract, the guarantor shall still be liable to the debtor for the latter's civil obligation, except as otherwise stipulated by security contract.

 

第十条主合同解除后,担保人对债务人应当承担的民事责任仍应承担担保责任。但是,担保合同另有约定的除外。
(相关资料:裁判文书35篇实务指南)

Article 11 The act of concluding a security contract by the legal representative or person in charge in a judicial person or other organization beyond their scope of authorization shall be valid , except when the counter party knows or should know about such fact.

 

第十一条法人或者其他组织的法定代表人、负责人超越权限订立的担保合同,除相对人知道或者应当知道其超越权限的以外,该代表行为有效。
(相关资料:案例1篇裁判文书5篇实务指南)

Article 12 The security term agreed upon by the parties or required by registration authorities shall not affect the continuity of the security.
Within two years after the limitation of action for a creditor's secured right expires, the people's court shall support the creditor's exercise of his security right.

 

第十二条当事人约定的或者登记部门要求登记的担保期间,对担保物权的存续不具有法律约束力。
担保物权所担保的债权的诉讼时效结束后,担保权人在诉讼时效结束后的二年内行使担保物权的,人民法院应当予以支撑。
(相关资料:裁判文书62篇相关论文3篇实务指南)

PART II INTERPRETATION OF GUARANTEE

 

二、关于保证部分的说明

Article 13 If a guarantee contract reads that the guarantor shall fulfill a non-monetary obligation and the guarantor defaults, he shall compensate the creditor for the consequent loss.

 

第十三条保证合同中约定保证人代为履行非金钱债务的,如果保证人不能实际代为履行,对债权人因此造成的损失,保证人应当承担赔偿责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇实务指南)

Article 14 If the any legal persons, other organizations or natural persons without complete solvency enters into any guarantee contract as a guarantor, and require pleads to be exempted from guarantee liability for their lack of solvency afterwards, such pleadings shall not be supported by the people's court shall not support it..

 

第十四条不具有完全代偿能力的法人、其他组织或者自然人,以保证人身份订立保证合同后,又以自己没有代偿能力要求免除保证责任的,人民法院不予支撑。
(相关资料:裁判文书4篇实务指南)

Article 15 Other organizations provided in Article 7of Security Law mainly include:

 

第十五条担保法第七条规定的其他组织主要包括:

1. independently-invested and partnership enterprises with legal registration and business license;

 

(一)依法登记领取营业执照的独资企业、合伙企业;

2. jointly-operated enterprises with legal registration and business license;

 

(二)依法登记领取营业执照的联营企业;

3. Sino-sino-foreign cooperative joint ventures with legal registration and business license;

 

(三)依法登记领取营业执照的中外合作经营企业;

4. social organizations approved and registered by civil authorities;

 

(四)经民政部门核准登记的社会团体;

5. township, neighborhood and village enterprises with legal registration and business license;

 

(五)经核准登记领取营业执照的乡镇、街道、村办企业。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 16 The guarantee contract entered into by operating institutions or social organizations as guarantor shall be deemed valid, if there is no reason for invalidity of the contract.

 

第十六条从事经营活动的事业单位、社会团体为保证人的,如无其他导致保证合同无效的情况,其所签定的保证合同应当认定为有效。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇实务指南)

Article 17 A guarantee contract shall be invalid if the guarantee is provided by branch of enterprise legal person without authorization by such legal person. The consequent loss of creditor shall be compensated according to Article 5(2) of Security Law.
When providing guarantee with written authorization of enterprise legal person, if the scope of authorization is not clear, the branch of enterprise legal person shall assume full responsibility for the debt agreed upon in the guarantee contract.
If the guarantee liability exceeds the property amount of the branch, the enterprise legal person shall assume the obligation.
The branch shall bear compensation liability with its own property when the guarantee contract is invalid. If the enterprise legal person is at fault, Article 29 of Security Law shall apply.

 

第十七条企业法人的分支机构未经法人书面授权提供保证的,保证合同无效。因此给债权人造成损失的,应当根据担保法第五条第二款的规定处理。
企业法人的分支机构经法人书面授权提供保证的,如果法人的书面授权范围不明,法人的分支机构应当对保证合同约定的全部债务承担保证责任。
企业法人的分支机构经营管理的财产不足以承担保证责任的,由企业法人承担民事责任。
企业法人的分支机构提供的保证无效后应当承担赔偿责任的,由分支机构经营管理的财产承担。企业法人有过错的,按照担保法第二十九条的规定处理。
(相关资料:裁判文书20篇实务指南)

Article 18 A guarantee offered by functional divisions of enterprise legal person is invalid. The creditor shall bear consequent loss if he knows or should know that the guarantor is a functional division of an enterprise legal person.
If the creditor is not aware that the guarantor is a functional division of an enterprise legal person, the consequent loss may be dealt with according to Article 5(2) and Article 29 of Security Law.

 

第十八条企业法人的职能部门提供保证的,保证合同无效。债权人知道或者应当知道保证人为企业法人的职能部门的,因此造成的损失由债权人自行承担。
债权人不知保证人为企业法人的职能部门,因此造成的损失,可以参照担保法第五条第二款的规定和第二十九条的规定处理。
(相关资料:裁判文书3篇实务指南)

Article 19 Where two or more guarantors secure the same debt simultaneously or respectively, but guarantors and creditor have not agreed on guarantee shares, such guarantee shall be deemed as joint guarantee.
Where the joint guarantors defend against creditor with their internal agreement of guarantee shares, such defense shall not be supported by the people's court.

 

第十九条两个以上保证人对同一债务同时或者分别提供保证时,各保证人与债权人没有约定保证份额的,应当认定为连带共同保证。
连带共同保证的保证人以其相互之间约定各自承担的份额对抗债权人的,人民法院不予支撑。
(相关资料:裁判文书120篇实务指南)

Article 20 If the debtor of a joint guarantee does not fulfill his liability upon the termination of term for performance as written in the principal contract, the creditor may require the debtor to fulfill his liability or require any one of the guarantors to bear the entire liability.
After undertaking guarantee responsibility, the joint guarantors may divide the portion that is unrecoverable from the debtor according to the share agreed upon internally. If no such share is agreed upon, this portion shall be divided equally.

 

第二十条连带共同保证的债务人在主合同规定的债务履行期届满没有履行债务的,债权人可以要求债务人履行债务,也可以要求任何一个保证人承担全部保证责任。
连带共同保证的保证人承担保证责任后,向债务人不能追偿的部分,由各连带保证人按其内部约定的比例分担。没有约定的,平均分担。
(相关资料:案例1篇裁判文书109篇实务指南)

Article 21 The joint guarantors by shares shall be entitled to claim repayment from the debtor within the scope of guarantee liability after fulfilling their own shares of guarantee responsibilities as agreed upon in the guarantee contract.

 

第二十一条按份共同保证的保证人按照保证合同约定的保证份额承担保证责任后,在其履行保证责任的范围内对债务人行使追偿权。
(相关资料:裁判文书4篇实务指南)

Article 22 Without holding objection, the creditor accepts a written guarantee which is unilaterally provided by a third party, the guarantee contract shall be concluded.
Where the guarantor signs or stamps on the principal contract without guarantee terms in the capacity of guarantor, the guarantee contract shall be concluded.

 

第二十二条第三人单方以书面形式向债权人出具担保书,债权人接受且未提出异议的,保证合同成立。
主合同中虽然没有保证条款,但是,保证人在主合同上以保证人的身份签字或者盖章的,保证合同成立。
(相关资料:裁判文书61篇实务指南)

Article 23 After specifying the uncertain obligation in a contract of a guarantee up to a maximum amount, the guarantor shall assume responsibility within the maximum amount for the continuous obligations arising in a specific period.

 

第二十三条最高额保证合同的不特定债权确定后,保证人应当对在最高债权额限度内就一定期间连续发生的债权余额承担保证责任。
(相关资料:案例1篇裁判文书25篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 24 At the expiration of term for obligation performance in a principal contract, if the general guarantor provides authentic information to the creditor concerning the debtor's property that is eligible for execution, but the creditor waivers or neglects the right and causes the failure of execution on this property, the guarantor may require the court to exempt him from security liability within the actual value scope of the above property.

 

第二十四条一般保证的保证人在主债权履行期间届满后,向债权人提供了债务人可供实行财产的真实情况的,债权人放弃或者怠于行使权利致使该财产不能被实行,保证人可以请求人民法院在其提供可供实行财产的实际价值范围内免除保证责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 25 Major difficulties The major difficult conditions for the creditor to require the debtor to perform obligation stipulated in Section A of Article 17 (3) include : unknown whereabouts, emigration of the debtor or no property of the debtor to be executed.

 

第二十五条担保法第十七条第三款第(一)项规定的债权人要求债务人履行债务发生的重大困难情形,包括债务人下落不明、移居境外,且无财产可供实行。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇实务指南)

Article 26 The third party that guarantees for the creditor to supervise the special purpose of a special fund will be free from liability after performance of the above obligation. If the third party defaults and results in suffers capital loss, he it shall bear supplementary compensation liability for the lost capital.

 

第二十六条第三人向债权人保证监督支付专款专用的,在履行了监督支付专款专用的义务后,不再承担责任。未尽监督义务造成资金流失的,应当对流失的资金承担补充赔偿责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇实务指南)

Article 27 Where the guarantor secures the debtor's registered capital and the debtor's actual investment does not accord with registered capital, or the debtor withdraws and transfers the registered capital, the guarantor shall assume joint security liability in the scope of the insufficient capital or transferred capital.

 

第二十七条保证人对债务人的注册资金提供保证的,债务人的实际投资与注册资金不符,或者抽逃转移注册资金的,保证人在注册资金不足或者抽逃转移注册资金的范围内承担连带保证责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书3篇实务指南)

Article 28 When the creditor lawfully transfers his principal obligation to a third party during the guarantee period, the guaranteed obligation shall be transferred simultaneously and the guarantor shall fulfill his guarantee liability for the transferee in the original scope of the guarantee. The guarantor shall be exempt from liability if it is agreed by guarantor and creditor that the guarantee is provided only to specific creditor or the credit is not transferable.

 

第二十八条保证期间,债权人依法将主债权转让给第三人的,保证债权同时转让,保证人在原保证担保的范围内对受让人承担保证责任。但是保证人与债权人事先约定仅对特定的债权人承担保证责任或者禁止债权转让的,保证人不再承担保证责任。
(相关资料:案例1篇裁判文书16篇实务指南)

Article 29 In the guarantee term, if the creditor allows the debtor to transfer part of his debt without written consent of the guarantor, the guarantor will not bear any liability for that part of the debt, while he is still liable for the remaining part of the debt.

 

第二十九条保证期间,债权人许可债务人转让部分债务未经保证人书面同意的,保证人对未经其同意转让部分的债务,不再承担保证责任。但是,保证人仍应当对未转让部分的债务承担保证责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇实务指南)

Article 30 In the guarantee term, if without guarantor's consent, the creditor and the debtor alter quantity, price, currency , interest rate and the like of the principal contract, and if the alteration reduces the debtor's obligation, the guarantor shall still bear the liability for the altered contract; if the alteration increases the debtor's obligation, the guarantor will not be liable for the increased portion.
Without the guarantor's written consent, if the creditor and debtor alter the performance duration of the principal contract, the guarantee duration shall remain unchanged or shall be the statutory duration.
The guarantor shall still bear the security liability if the creditor and debtor agree to alter content of principal contract but have not performed accordingly.

 

第三十条保证期间,债权人与债务人对主合同数量、价款、币种、利率等内容作了变动,未经保证人同意的,如果减轻债务人的债务的,保证人仍应当对变更后的合同承担保证责任;如果加重债务人的债务的,保证人对加重的部分不承担保证责任。
债权人与债务人对主合同履行期限作了变动,未经保证人书面同意的,保证期间为原合同约定的或者法律规定的期间。
债权人与债务人协议变动主合同内容,但并未实际履行的,保证人仍应当承担保证责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书47篇相关论文2篇实务指南)

Article 31 The duration of the guarantee shall not be suspended, discontinued or extended under any circumstances.

 

第三十一条保证期间不因任何事由发生中断、中止、延长的法律后果。
(相关资料:裁判文书25篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 32 A guarantee term stipulated in a guarantee contract which is earlier than or the same as the performance term of principal debt shall be deemed as not stipulated. The guarantee term shall be six months from the expiration date of the term for performance of the principal obligation.
It will be considered as an unclear provision if the guarantee contract stipulates that the guarantor shall bear liability until the principal amount and interest for the principal debt have been paid. The guarantee term shall be two years from the expiration of the term for performance of the principal obligation.

 

第三十二条保证合同约定的保证期间早于或者等于主债务履行期限的,视为没有约定,保证期间为主债务履行期届满之日起六个月。
保证合同约定保证人承担保证责任直至主债务本息还清时为止等类似内容的,视为约定不明,保证期间为主债务履行期届满之日起二年。
(相关资料:其他规范性文件1篇案例2篇裁判文书151篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 33 Where there is no stipulation or no clear stipulation in the principal contract concerning the performance term for principal debt, the guarantee term shall be computed from the expiration date of the  grace period for the debtor to fulfill his obligation.

 

第三十三条主合同对主债务履行期限没有约定或者约定不明的,保证期间自债权人要求债务人履行义务的宽限期届满之日起计算。
(相关资料:裁判文书18篇实务指南)

Article 34 Where the creditor of a general guarantee files a suit or applies for arbitration against the debtor before the expiration of the  guarantee term, the limitation of action for guarantee contract shall be computed from the effective date of verdict or arbitration award.
When the creditor of joint liability guarantee requires the guarantor to assume liability before the expiration date of guarantee term, the limitation of action for the guarantee contract shall be computed from the date of the creditor's requirement.

 

第三十四条一般保证的债权人在保证期间届满前对债务人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的,从判决或者仲裁裁决生效之日起,开始计算保证合同的诉讼时效。
连带责任保证的债权人在保证期间届满前要求保证人承担保证责任的,从债权人要求保证人承担保证责任之日起,开始计算保证合同的诉讼时效。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇案例1篇裁判文书87篇实务指南)

Article 35 Where the guarantor bears liability or provides guarantee for debt that has exceeded the limitation of action, if and he defends on the basis that such liability has exceeded the limitation of action, with the above fact afterwards, the people's court shall not support him.

 

第三十五条保证人对已经超过诉讼时效期间的债务承担保证责任或者提供保证的,又以超过诉讼时效为由抗辩的,人民法院不予支撑。
(相关资料:裁判文书13篇实务指南)

Article 36 In a general guarantee, the limitation of action for guarantee debt will discontinue when that of the principal debt discontinues. In joint liability guarantee, the limitation of action for guarantee debt will not discontinue when that of the principal debt discontinues.
In both general and joint liability guarantees, the limitation of action for guarantee debt will suspend when that of the principal debt suspend.

 

第三十六条一般保证中,主债务诉讼时效中断,保证债务诉讼时效中断;连带责任保证中,主债务诉讼时效中断,保证债务诉讼时效不中断。
一般保证和连带责任保证中,主债务诉讼时效中止的,保证债务的诉讼时效同时中止。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇其他规范性文件1篇案例1篇裁判文书13篇实务指南)

Article 37 Where there is no agreement or no clear agreement on the guarantee term in the contract of guarantee up to a maximum amount, if the term for guarantor to pay debt is written in the contract, the guarantee term shall be six months from the expiration of the term for guarantor's payment of debt. If the term for payment of debt is not stipulated in the  contract, the guarantee term shall be six months from the termination of the  guarantee up to the a maximum amount, or six months from the date of the creditor's receiving of the guarantor's written notice about terminating guarantee contract.

 

第三十七条最高额保证合同对保证期间没有约定或者约定不明的,如最高额保证合同约定有保证人清偿债务期限的,保证期间为清偿期限届满之日起六个月。没有约定债务清偿期限的,保证期间自最高额保证终止之日或自债权人收到保证人终止保证合同的书面通知到达之日起六个月。
(相关资料:裁判文书9篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 38 Where an obligation is secured by both a guarantee and a property security of a third party, the creditor may require the guarantor or such third party to perform obligation. Where there is no agreement or no clear agreement by the parties concerning the scope of guarantee or property security, the guarantor who has fulfilled the liability may have recourse against the debtor or have the right to require the other guarantors to answer for their shares.
Where an obligation is secured by both a guarantee and property security, if the security contract of property is proved invalid or rescinded, or the property is lost due to force majeure and no substitute is available, the guarantor shall still assume liability as stipulated by contract or by law.
Where the creditor fails to exercise the property security after the expiration of performance term for principal contract, and thus results in depreciation, damage or loss of the security property, part or all of the property security shall be deemed as waived by the creditor. The guarantor will be lessened or exempted from obligation for the rights waived by such creditor.

 

第三十八条同一债权既有保证又有第三人提供物的担保的,债权人可以请求保证人或者物的担保人承担担保责任。当事人对保证担保的范围或者物的担保的范围没有约定或者约定不明的,承担了担保责任的担保人,可以向债务人追偿,也可以要求其他担保人清偿其应当分担的份额。
同一债权既有保证又有物的担保的,物的担保合同被确认无效或者被撤销,或者担保物因不可抗力的原因灭失而没有代位物的,保证人仍应当按合同的约定或者法律的规定承担保证责任。
债权人在主合同履行期届满后怠于行使担保物权,致使担保物的价值减少或者毁损、灭失的,视为债权人放弃部分或者全部物的担保。保证人在债权人放弃权利的范围内减轻或者免除保证责任。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇裁判文书98篇相关论文2篇实务指南)

Article 39 Where the parties of the principal contract agree to repay an old loan with a new loan, the guarantor will not bear liability except when he knows or should know about this.
The above provision shall not apply where the same guarantor secures the two loans.

 

第三十九条主合同当事人双方协议以新贷偿还旧贷,除保证人知道或者应当知道的外,保证人不承担民事责任。
新贷与旧贷系同一保证人的,不适用前款的规定。
(相关资料:案例5篇裁判文书84篇实务指南)

Article 40 Where the debtor of principal contract causes the guarantor to provide a guarantee contrary to his will by means of fraud, intimidation or the like, and the creditor knows or should know about such fact, Article 30 of Security Law shall apply.

 

第四十条主合同债务人采取欺诈、胁迫等手段,使保证人在违背真实意思的情况下提供保证的,债权人知道或者应当知道欺诈、胁迫事实的,按照担保法第三十条的规定处理。
(相关资料:案例1篇裁判文书8篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 41 Where the debtor and guarantor establish principal and guarantee contracts by jointly cheating the creditor, the creditor may request the people's court to rescind such contracts. The guarantor and debtor shall bear joint liability for the creditor's consequent loss.

 

第四十一条债务人与保证人共同欺骗债权人,订立主合同和保证合同的,债权人可以请求人民法院予以撤销。因此给债权人造成损失的,由保证人与债务人承担连带赔偿责任。
(相关资料:相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 42 Where the court decides that the guarantor shall assume guarantee or compensation liability, it shall be specified in the verdict that the guarantor is entitled to the rights in Article 31 of the  Security Law. If the guarantor's right of recourse is not clearly mentioned in the verdict, the guarantor has to bring another lawsuit on the basis of his compensation.
The limitation of action for the guarantor to recover from the debtor shall be computed from the date when the guarantor assumes liability to the creditor.

 

第四十二条人民法院判决保证人承担保证责任或者赔偿责任的,应当在判决书主文中明确保证人享有担保法第三十一条规定的权利。判决书中未予明确追偿权的,保证人只能按照承担责任的事实,另行提起诉讼。
保证人对债务人行使追偿权的诉讼时效,自保证人向债权人承担责任之日起开始计算。
(相关资料:地方法规1篇案例2篇裁判文书569篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 43 Where the guarantor assumes liability independently and his actual payment exceeds the principal obligation, the guarantor may only have recourse against the debtor within the scope of the principal obligation.

 

第四十三条保证人自行履行保证责任时,其实际清偿额大于主债权范围的,保证人只能在主债权范围内对债务人行使追偿权。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇实务指南)

Article 44 During the term of guarantee, the creditor may either declare his claim to the people's court or make a claim to the guarantor when the court has accepted a bankruptcy application of the debtor.
The guarantor shall still assume obligation for the portion unpaid in the bankruptcy procedure after the creditor has declared his claim. The creditor shall require the guarantor to perform liability his obligations within six months from the termination of the bankruptcy procedure.

 

第四十四条保证期间,人民法院受理债务人破产案件的,债权人既可以向人民法院申报债权,也可以向保证人主张权利。
债权人申报债权后在破产程序中未受清偿的部分,保证人仍应当承担保证责任。债权人要求保证人承担保证责任的,应当在破产程序终结后六个月内提出。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇地方法规1篇案例1篇裁判文书11篇相关论文2篇实务指南)

Article 45 Where the creditor knows or should know about the debtor's bankruptcy but fails to declare a claim or notify the guarantor, if such failure causes the guarantor's inability to claim recourse right in advance, the guarantor will be exempt from obligation within the scope (for the amount) that may be paid in the bankruptcy distribution.

 

第四十五条债权人知道或者应当知道债务人破产,既未申报债权也未通知保证人,致使保证人不能预先行使追偿权的,保证人在该债权在破产程序中可能受偿的范围内免除保证责任。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 46 Where the creditor has not declared made a claim after the court accepts the debtor's bankruptcy case, the joint guarantors shall declare a claim as one subject for recourse in advance.

 

第四十六条人民法院受理债务人破产案件后,债权人未申报债权的,各连带共同保证的保证人应当作为一个主体申报债权,预先行使追偿权。
(相关资料:实务指南)

PART III INTERPRETATION OF MORTGAGE

 

三、关于抵押部分的说明

Article 47 Where the parties have registered the mortgaged property of a house or other buildings that have been approved but not built, or are still under construction, such mortgage may be considered effective by the people's court.

 

第四十七条以依法获准尚未建造的或者正在建造中的房屋或者其他建筑物抵押的,当事人办理了抵押物登记,人民法院可以认定抵押有效。
(相关资料:裁判文书33篇相关论文2篇实务指南)

Article 48 Mortgage on buildings that are determined by legal procedure as violating laws or regulations shall be invalid.

 

第四十八条以法定程序确认为违法、违章的建筑物抵押的,抵押无效。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 49 The mortgage on a property without ownership certificate may be considered valid if the ownership certificate is available or the property is registered before termination of court debate in the first instance.
The parties that fail to register the mortgaged property may not make a claim against a third party.

 

第四十九条以尚未办理权属证书的财产抵押的,在第一审法庭辩论终结前能够提供权利证书或者补办登记手续的,可以认定抵押有效。
当事人未办理抵押物登记手续的,不得对抗第三人。
(相关资料:裁判文书12篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 50 Where a mortgage is made on all the properties stipulated in Article 34(1) of the Security Law, the scope of the mortgaged property shall be determined by the registration. The value of the mortgaged property shall be confirmed upon the realization of mortgage rights.

 

第五十条以担保法第三十四条第一款所列财产一并抵押的,抵押财产的范围应当以登记的财产为准。抵押财产的价值在抵押权实现时予以确定。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇裁判文书4篇实务指南)

Article 51 Where the obligation exceeds the value of the mortgaged property, there will not be priority of payment for the exceeding portion.

 

第五十一条抵押人所担保的债权超出其抵押物价值的,超出的部分不具有优先受偿的效力。
(相关资料:司法说明1篇裁判文书4篇实务指南)

Article 52 Where the parties mortgage crops and the use right of the indispensable land simultaneously, the mortgage on land use right is invalid.

 

第五十二条当事人以农作物和与其尚未分离的土地使用权同时抵押的,土地使用权部分的抵押无效。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 53 Where institutions and social organizations for the public good such as schools, kindergartens, hospitals, etc., for their own debts, mortgage properties other than the educational, medical and other facilities for public good, such mortgage may be considered valid by the court.

 

第五十三条学校、幼儿园、医院等以公益为目的的事业单位、社会团体,以其教育设施、医疗卫生设施和其他社会公益设施以外的财产为自身债务设定抵押的,人民法院可以认定抵押有效。
(相关资料:裁判文书1篇实务指南)

Article 54 Mortgage made by a co-owner by shares on his own share of common property is valid.
Where the common owner mortgages the jointly owned property without consent of other owners, such mortgage is invalid. If the other common owners know or should know about such mortgage and do not object it, such act will be deemed as consent, and the mortgage shall be valid.

 

第五十四条按份共有人以其共有财产中享有的份额设定抵押的,抵押有效。
共同共有人以其共有财产设定抵押,未经其他共有人的同意,抵押无效。但是,其他共有人知道或者应当知道而未提出异议的视为同意,抵押有效。
(相关资料:裁判文书17篇实务指南)

Article 55 The property preservation and execution procedures such as sealing up, detaining, etc. taken to the mortgaged property shall not influence the effect of the mortgage.

 

第五十五条已经设定抵押的财产被采取查封、扣押等财产保全或者实行措施的,不影响抵押权的效力。
(相关资料:裁判文书3篇实务指南)

Article 56 Where there is no stipulation or no clear stipulation in mortgage contract concerning the category of mortgaged principal obligation and mortgaged property, and neither can be supplemented or determined by principal contract and mortgage contract, the mortgage shall be seen as not created.
Where it is stipulated by law that a mortgage contract will take effect only after registration, while the mortgagor refuses to go through such procedure according to principle of good faith, the mortgagor shall compensate the creditor for consequent loss.

 

第五十六条抵押合同对被担保的主债权种类、抵押财产没有约定或者约定不明,根据主合同和抵押合同不能补正或者无法推定的,抵押不成立。
法律规定登记生效的抵押合同签订后,抵押人违背诚实信用原则拒绝办理抵押登记致使债权人受到损失的,抵押人应当承担赔偿责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书35篇实务指南)

Article 57 Where the parties stipulate in mortgagee the mortgage contract that if the creditor has not received full payment upon the expiration date of performance, the ownership of mortgaged property will be transferred to the creditor, such provision shall be invalid and shall have no effect on other provisions of the contract.
Where a mortgagee has not received full payment at the expiration of the term for performance of obligation, he may agree with the mortgagor to obtain the mortgaged property by converting its value. While if the interests of later mortgagee or other creditor are damaged thereof (not clear what this part of the sentence means), the people's court may apply stipulations of Articles 74 and 75in Contract Law.

 

第五十七条当事人在抵押合同中约定,债务履行期届满抵押权人未受清偿时,抵押物的所有权转移为债权人所有的内容无效。该内容的无效不影响抵押合同其他部分内容的效力。
债务履行期届满后抵押权人未受清偿时,抵押权人和抵押人可以协议以抵押物折价取得抵押物。但是,损害顺序在后的担保物权人和其他债权人利益的,人民法院可以适用合同法第七十四条、第七十五条的有关规定。
(相关资料:裁判文书5篇实务指南)

Article 58 Where the parties register the mortgaged property in with different authorities in the same day, the order shall be deemed as the same.
If the continuous registrations are made due to contributes to the authority's reason, the first day to register the mortgaged property shall be seen as the registration date of mortgage and shall be the basis to determine the order of mortgage right.

 

第五十八条当事人同一天在不同的法定登记部门办理抵押物登记的,视为顺序相同。
因登记部门的原因致使抵押物进行连续登记的,抵押物第一次登记的日期,视为抵押登记的日期,并依此确定抵押权的顺序。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 59 Where the parties can not register the mortgaged property due to the authority's reason, if the mortgagor provides right certificate to the creditor, it can be concluded that the creditor has priority right of payment for the property. But without registering the mortgaged property, the parties can not make a claim against a third party.

 

第五十九条当事人办理抵押物登记手续时,因登记部门的原因致使其无法办理抵押物登记,抵押人向债权人交付权利凭证的,可以认定债权人对该财产有优先受偿权。但是,未办理抵押物登记的,不得对抗第三人。
(相关资料:裁判文书12篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 60 Where a mortgage is made on real estate listed in Article 42 (2) of Security Law, and there is no stipulation by governments of county or above level concerning registration authorities, if the parities register the mortgage in administration authorities of land or real estate, the people's court may confirm effectiveness of such registration.

 

第六十条以担保法第四十二条第(二)项规定的不动产抵押的,县级以上地方人民政府对登记部门未作规定,当事人在土地管理部门或者房产管理部门办理了抵押物登记手续,人民法院可以确认其登记的效力。
(相关资料:裁判文书1篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 61 Where the content of the mortgage registration contravenes that of the mortgage contract, the former shall prevail.

 

第六十一条抵押物登记记载的内容与抵押合同约定的内容不一致的,以登记记载的内容为准。
(相关资料:裁判文书14篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 62 Where the mortgaged property is owned by a third party due to attaching, mixing or processing, the mortgage shall affect the compensation; where the mortgagor becomes the owner of the attachment, mixture or processed product, the mortgage will affect such attachment, mixture or processed product; where a third party jointly owns the attachment, mixture or processed product with the owner of mortgaged property, the mortgage will affect the share enjoyed by the mortgagor.

 

第六十二条抵押物因附合、混合或者加工使抵押物的所有权为第三人所有的,抵押权的效力及于补偿金;抵押物所有人为附合物、混合物或者加工物的所有人的,抵押权的效力及于附合物、混合物或者加工物;第三人与抵押物所有人为附合物、混合物或者加工物的共有人的,抵押权的效力及于抵押人对共有物享有的份额。
(相关资料:相关论文2篇实务指南)

Article 63 Where a property is accessory of the mortgaged property prior to the mortgage creation, the mortgage shall have effect on such accessory. While if the mortgaged property and its accessory are independently owned by two or more persons, the mortgage shall not have effect on the accessory.

 

第六十三条抵押权设定前为抵押物的从物的,抵押权的效力及于抵押物的从物。但是,抵押物与其从物为两个以上的人分别所有时,抵押权的效力不及于抵押物的从物。
(相关资料:裁判文书1篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 64 Where a mortgaged property is seized by a court due to the debtor's failure to perform his obligation at the expiration of the term for such performance, from the date of seizure, the natural and statutory fruits of the mortgaged property obtained by the mortgagee shall be paid in the following order:

 

第六十四条债务履行期届满,债务人不履行债务致使抵押物被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起抵押权人收取的由抵押物分离的天然孳息和法定孳息,按照下列顺序清偿:

1. expenses for obtaining fruits;

 

(一)收取孳息的费用;

2. interest for principal obligation;

 

(二)主债权的利息;

3. Principal obligation.

 

(三)主债权。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 65 Where the mortgagor mortgages a leased property, after the realization of mortgage right, the leasing contract shall still be binding on the consignee of such property within the duration of the lease contract.

 

第六十五条抵押人将已出租的财产抵押的,抵押权实现后,租赁合同在有效期内对抵押物的受让人继续有效。
(相关资料:地方法规1篇裁判文书6篇相关论文3篇实务指南)

Article 66 Where the mortgagor leases a mortgaged property, after the realization of mortgage right, the leasing contract will not be binding on the consignee.
When leasing the mortgaged property, if the mortgagor fails to notify the leasee in writing about the fact, the mortgagor shall compensate the leasee's loss arising thereof; if notified by the mortgagor in writing, the leasee shall bear the loss individually if any damage arises thereof.

 

第六十六条抵押人将已抵押的财产出租的,抵押权实现后,租赁合同对受让人不具有约束力。
抵押人将已抵押的财产出租时,如果抵押人未书面告知承租人该财产已抵押的,抵押人对出租抵押物造成承租人的损失承担赔偿责任;如果抵押人已书面告知承租人该财产已抵押的,抵押权实现造成承租人的损失,由承租人自已承担。
(相关资料:地方法规1篇裁判文书19篇相关论文2篇实务指南)

Article 67 During the term of mortgage, if the mortgagor transfers the mortgaged property without notifying the mortgagee or consignee, the mortgagee can still exercise his mortgage right on condition that the mortgaged property has been registered; the consignee who has obtained the ownership of the property may pay all the debts in the debtor's place to extinguish mortgage right. After payment, the consignee is entitled to recourse against the mortgagor.
If the mortgaged property has not been registered, the mortgagee is not entitled to claim against the consignee. Any consequent loss of the mortgagee shall be covered by the mortgagor.

 

第六十七条抵押权存续期间,抵押人转让抵押物未通知抵押权人或者未告知受让人的,如果抵押物已经登记的,抵押权人仍可以行使抵押权;取得抵押物所有权的受让人,可以代替债务人清偿其全部债务,使抵押权消灭。受让人清偿债务后可以向抵押人追偿。
如果抵押物未经登记的,抵押权不得对抗受让人,因此给抵押权人造成损失的,由抵押人承担赔偿责任。
(相关资料:案例1篇裁判文书24篇相关论文8篇实务指南)

Article 68 Mortgage right shall not be influenced if the mortgaged property is inherited or donated.

 

第六十八条抵押物依法被继承或者赠与的,抵押权不受影响。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 69 If there are several general creditors and at the time of payment the debtor is unable to fulfill other debts by mortgaging all or part of his property for one creditor through malicious collusion, the other creditors whose interests has been damaged may request the court to rescind such mortgage.

 

第六十九条债务人有多个普通债权人的,在清偿债务时,债务人与其中一个债权人恶意串通,将其全部或者部分财产抵押给该债权人,因此丧失了履行其他债务的能力,损害了其他债权人的合法权益,受损害的其他债权人可以请求人民法院撤销该抵押行为。
(相关资料:其他规范性文件1篇裁判文书2篇相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 70 When the act of a mortgagor may depreciate a mortgaged property, and the mortgagor refuses to restore the original condition or provide security, the mortgagee may require the debtor to perform his liability or require to exercise mortgage right in advance.

 

第七十条抵押人的行为足以使抵押物价值减少的,抵押权人请求抵押人恢复原状或提供担保遭到拒绝时,抵押权人可以请求债务人履行债务,也可以请求提前行使抵押权。
(相关资料:相关论文1篇实务指南)

Article 71 Prior to full payment of principal obligation, the mortgagee may exercise his right on the whole of the mortgaged property.
When the mortgaged property is divided or partially transferred, the mortgagee may exercise his right on the divided or transferred mortgaged property.

 

第七十一条主债权未受全部清偿的,抵押权人可以就抵押物的全部行使其抵押权。
抵押物被分割或者部分转让的,抵押权人可以就分割或者转让后的抵押物行使抵押权。
(相关资料:裁判文书4篇实务指南)

Article 72 The creditor may exercise his share of mortgage right after the principal obligation is divided or partially transferred.
The mortgagor shall still mortgage for multiple debtors' obligation with his mortgaged property after the principal debt is divided or partially transferred. If the mortgage is provided by a third party, and the creditor allows the debtor to transfer debt without written consent of the  mortgagor, the mortgagor will not be liable for such portion of the  obligation.

 

第七十二条主债权被分割或者部分转让的,各债权人可以就其享有的债权份额行使抵押权。
主债务被分割或者部分转让的,抵押人仍以其抵押物担保数个债务人履行债务。但是,第三人提供抵押的,债权人许可债务人转让债务未经抵押人书面同意的,抵押人对未经其同意转让的债务,不再承担担保责任。
(相关资料:裁判文书5篇实务指南)

Article 73 Where the proceeds from converting, auctioning or selling of the mortgaged property are lower than the agreed value when the mortgage is created, payment shall be made according to the actual value of the proceeds. The debtor shall answer for the shortfall.

 

第七十三条抵押物折价或者拍卖、变卖该抵押物的价款低于抵押权设定时约定价值的,应当按照抵押物实现的价值进行清偿。不足清偿的剩余部分,由债务人清偿。
(相关资料:裁判文书8篇实务指南)

Article 74 When there is no agreement of the parties on payment, the proceeds from converting, auctioning and selling of the mortgaged property shall be paid in the following order:

 

第七十四条抵押物折价或者拍卖、变卖所得的价款,当事人没有约定的,按下列顺序清偿:

1. expenses to realize the mortgage right;

 

(一)实现抵押权的费用;

2. interest of the principal obligation;

 

(二)主债权的利息;

3. Principal obligation.

 

(三)主债权。
(相关资料:实务指南)

Article 75 Where there are two or more mortgagors for one obligation and the creditor waives his right of mortgage provided by debtor, the other mortgagors may request the court to lessen or exempt him from security liability.
Where there are two or more mortgagors for one obligation, and there is no agreement or no clear agreement on the share or order of obligation mortgaged by properties, the mortgagee may exercise his right on any one or every one of such properties.
After having borne security liability, the mortgagor may have recourse against the debtor or require other mortgagors to answer for their own shares.

 

第七十五条同一债权有两个以上抵押人的,债权人放弃债务人提供的抵押担保的,其他抵押人可以请求人民法院减轻或者免除其应当承担的担保责任。
同一债权有两个以上抵押人的,当事人对其提供的抵押财产所担保的债权份额或者顺序没有约定或者约定不明的,抵押权人可以就其中任一或者各个财产行使抵押权。
抵押人承担担保责任后,可以向债务人追偿,也可以要求其他抵押人清偿其应当承担的份额。
(相关资料:裁判文书17篇实务指南)


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